Lecture: Evoluionäre Systeme: Von der Biologie zur Technik
The Little Lexicon
allele one of a number of different possible codings of a gene
altruism behaviour that is beneficial for others but not necessarily for oneself
ATP Adenosine Triphosphate; nucleotide that transports chemical enery in the cell
chromosome macromolecule, that contains parts of the densely packed DNA
DNA Deoxyribonucleicacid, the carrier of genetic information
dominant gene  the allele that causes the phenotype in a heterozygous genotype
diploid genotype organisms with two copies of each chromosome (usually one from each parent)
eukaryotes organisms that have cell nuclei
enzyme protein that acts as a bio-catalysator; i.e. speeds up bio-chemical reactions
epistasis the action of one gene is influenced by other genes
gene unit of hereditary information
genotype collection of all gene s of an individual, i.e. genome
haploid genotype genotype only has one copy of each chromosome, e.g. male bees, wasps and ants
homozygous genotype a diploid or polyploid genotype with the same allele at a locus (position)
homologue genotypes genotypes with a common ancestor
heterozygous genotype a diploid or polyploid genotype with different alleles at a locus (position)
in vitro "Latin: in the glass", biological experiments that are carried out outside the living organism, e.g. in a test tube
in vivo  "Latin: in the living", biological experiments that are carrie out in the living organisms, e.g. animal tests
in slicio experiments performed by computer simulations
k Boltzmann constant: k=1.38 10-23 joule/kelvin; k relates temperature (measured in kelvin) and energy (measured in joule)
pleiotropy a single gene influences several phenotypic traits (e.g. eye and hair colour)
polycondensation the process by which polymers are built out of monomers by separation of water molecules
polygeny several genes influence one phenotypic trait (e.g. eye colour)
polyploidity cells have multiple copies of each chromosome (mostly in plants)
polymer long molecule that consists of repeating units (monomer) and structural units
prokaryotes organisms without a cell nucleus - generally single cell organisms; mostly bacteria
protein a complex large molecule that consists of amino acids joined by peptide bonds; the amino acids are folded in a very complex way; proteins are the basic constituents of living organisms
reciprocal cross individuals of a certain genetic composition are used once as male and once as female parent
(reziproke Kreuzung)
recessive gene the allele that causes the phenotype only in a homozygous genotype
wildtype one of the major (most successful) genotypes of a species